Episyrphus Balteatus Classification Essay

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1. Hainschwebfliege – The upper side of the abdomen is patterned with orange and black bands. Two further identification characters are the presence of black bands on the third and fourth dorsal plates. Its color patterns may appear wasp-like to other animals, such as birds, E. balteatus can be found throughout the year in various habitats, including urban gardens, visiting flowers for pollen and nectar. They often form dense swarms, which may cause panic among people for their resemblance to wasps. It is among the few species of flies capable of crushing pollen grains. The larva is terrestrial and feeds on aphids, as in most other hoverflies, males can be easily identified by their holoptic eyes, i. e. left and right compound eyes touching at the top of their heads. 8, Platypezidae, Pipunculidae and Syrphidae of Great Britain, reprint,1969, E. W. Classey, chiney, Michael, Insects of Britain and Western Europe. Domino Guides, A&C Black, London Episyrphus balteatus

2. Biologie – Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, identification and taxonomy. Modern biology is a vast and eclectic field, composed of branches and subdisciplines. However, despite the broad scope of biology, there are certain unifying concepts within it that consolidate it into single, coherent field. In general, biology recognizes the cell as the unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity. It is also understood today that all organisms survive by consuming and transforming energy and by regulating their internal environment to maintain a stable, the term biology is derived from the Greek word βίος, bios, life and the suffix -λογία, -logia, study of. The Latin-language form of the term first appeared in 1736 when Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus used biologi in his Bibliotheca botanica, the first German use, Biologie, was in a 1771 translation of Linnaeus work. In 1797, Theodor Georg August Roose used the term in the preface of a book, karl Friedrich Burdach used the term in 1800 in a more restricted sense of the study of human beings from a morphological, physiological and psychological perspective. The science that concerns itself with these objects we will indicate by the biology or the doctrine of life. Although modern biology is a recent development, sciences related to. Natural philosophy was studied as early as the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indian subcontinent, however, the origins of modern biology and its approach to the study of nature are most often traced back to ancient Greece. While the formal study of medicine back to Hippocrates, it was Aristotle who contributed most extensively to the development of biology. Especially important are his History of Animals and other works where he showed naturalist leanings, and later more empirical works that focused on biological causation and the diversity of life. Aristotles successor at the Lyceum, Theophrastus, wrote a series of books on botany that survived as the most important contribution of antiquity to the plant sciences, even into the Middle Ages. Scholars of the medieval Islamic world who wrote on biology included al-Jahiz, Al-Dīnawarī, who wrote on botany, biology began to quickly develop and grow with Anton van Leeuwenhoeks dramatic improvement of the microscope. It was then that scholars discovered spermatozoa, bacteria, infusoria, investigations by Jan Swammerdam led to new interest in entomology and helped to develop the basic techniques of microscopic dissection and staining. Advances in microscopy also had a impact on biological thinking. In the early 19th century, a number of biologists pointed to the importance of the cell. Thanks to the work of Robert Remak and Rudolf Virchow, however, meanwhile, taxonomy and classification became the focus of natural historians

3. Pflanzen – The Embryophyta are the most familiar group of green plants that form vegetation on earth. Living embryophytes include hornworts, liverworts, mosses, ferns, lycophytes, gymnosperms and flowering plants, the Embryophyta are informally called land plants because they live primarily in terrestrial habitats, while the related green algae are primarily aquatic. All are complex multicellular eukaryotes with specialized reproductive organs, the name derives from their innovative characteristic of nurturing the young embryo sporophyte during the early stages of its multicellular development within the tissues of the parent gametophyte. With very few exceptions, embryophytes obtain their energy by photosynthesis, the evolutionary origins of the embryophytes are discussed further below, but they are believed to have evolved from within a group of complex green algae during the Paleozoic era. Charales or the stoneworts may be the best living illustration of that developmental step, embryophytes are primarily adapted for life on land, although some are secondarily aquatic. Accordingly, they are called land plants or terrestrial plants. On a microscopic level, the cells of embryophytes are broadly similar to those of green algae and they are eukaryotic, with a cell wall composed of cellulose and plastids surrounded by two membranes. Embryophyte cells also generally have a central vacuole enclosed by a vacuolar membrane or tonoplast. In common with all groups of multicellular algae they have a cycle which involves alternation of generations. The mature sporophyte produces spores which grow into a gametophyte. Embryophytes have two related to their reproductive cycles which distinguish them from all other plant lineages. Firstly, their gametophytes produce sperm and eggs in multicellular structures and this second feature is the origin of the term embryophyte – the fertilized egg develops into a protected embryo, rather than dispersing as a single cell. In the bryophytes the sporophyte dependent on the gametophyte, while in all other embryophytes the sporophyte generation is dominant. Embryophytes also differ from algae by having metamers, metamers are repeated units of development, in which each unit derives from a single cell, but the resulting product tissue or part is largely the same for each cell. The whole organism is thus constructed from similar, repeating parts or metamers, accordingly, these plants are sometimes termed metaphytes and classified as the group Metaphyta. All green algae and land plants are now known to form an evolutionary lineage or clade. According to several molecular clock estimates the Viridiplantae split 1,200 million years ago to 725 million years ago into two clades, chlorophytes and streptophytes, the chlorophytes are considerably more diverse and were originally marine, although some groups have since spread into fresh water. The streptophyte algae are less diverse and adapted to fresh very early in their evolutionary history

4. Art (Biologie) – In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. While this definition is often adequate, looked at more closely it is problematic, for example, with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, or in a ring species, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear. Other ways of defining species include similarity of DNA, morphology, all species are given a two-part name, a binomial. The first part of a binomial is the genus to which the species belongs, the second part is called the specific name or the specific epithet. For example, Boa constrictor is one of four species of the Boa genus, Species were seen from the time of Aristotle until the 18th century as fixed kinds that could be arranged in a hierarchy, the great chain of being. In the 19th century, biologists grasped that species could evolve given sufficient time, Charles Darwins 1859 book The Origin of Species explained how species could arise by natural selection. Genes can sometimes be exchanged between species by horizontal transfer, and species may become extinct for a variety of reasons. In his biology, Aristotle used the term γένος to mean a kind, such as a bird or fish, a kind was distinguished by its attributes, for instance, a bird has feathers, a beak, wings, a hard-shelled egg, and warm blood. A form was distinguished by being shared by all its members, Aristotle believed all kinds and forms to be distinct and unchanging. His approach remained influential until the Renaissance, when observers in the Early Modern period began to develop systems of organization for living things, they placed each kind of animal or plant into a context. Many of these early delineation schemes would now be considered whimsical, animals likewise that differ specifically preserve their distinct species permanently, one species never springs from the seed of another nor vice versa. In the 18th century, the Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus classified organisms according to shared physical characteristics and he established the idea of a taxonomic hierarchy of classification based upon observable characteristics and intended to reflect natural relationships. At the time, however, it was widely believed that there was no organic connection between species, no matter how similar they appeared. However, whether or not it was supposed to be fixed, by the 19th century, naturalists understood that species could change form over time, and that the history of the planet provided enough time for major changes. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, in his 1809 Zoological Philosophy, described the transmutation of species, proposing that a species could change over time, in 1859, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace provided a compelling account of evolution and the formation of new species. Darwin argued that it was populations that evolved, not individuals and this required a new definition of species. Darwin concluded that species are what appear to be, ideas

5. Evolution – Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations. Evolutionary processes give rise to biodiversity at every level of organisation, including the levels of species, individual organisms. In July 2016, scientists reported identifying a set of 355 genes from the LUCA of all living on Earth. The fossil record includes a progression from early biogenic graphite, to microbial mat fossils, existing patterns of biodiversity have been shaped both by speciation and by extinction. More than 99 percent of all species that lived on Earth are estimated to be extinct. Estimates of Earths current species range from 10 to 14 million, more recently, in May 2016, scientists reported that 1 trillion species are estimated to be on Earth currently with only one-thousandth of one percent described. In the mid-19th century, Charles Darwin formulated the theory of evolution by natural selection. This teleonomy is the quality whereby the process of natural selection creates and preserves traits that are fitted for the functional roles they perform. The processes by which the changes occur, from one generation to another, are called evolutionary processes or mechanisms, the four most widely recognized evolutionary processes are natural selection, genetic drift, mutation and gene migration. Natural selection and genetic drift sort variation, mutation and gene migration create variation, consequences of selection can include meiotic drive, nonrandom mating and genetic hitchhiking. In the early 20th century the modern evolutionary synthesis integrated classical genetics with Darwins theory of evolution by natural selection through the discipline of population genetics, the importance of natural selection as a cause of evolution was accepted into other branches of biology. Moreover, previously held notions about evolution, such as orthogenesis, evolutionism, evolutionary computation, a sub-field of artificial intelligence, involves the application of Darwinian principles to problems in computer science. The proposal that one type of organism could descend from another type goes back to some of the first pre-Socratic Greek philosophers, such as Anaximander, such proposals survived into Roman times. The poet and philosopher Lucretius followed Empedocles in his masterwork De rerum natura, in contrast to these materialistic views, Aristotelianism considered all natural things as actualisations of fixed natural possibilities, known as forms. This was part of a teleological understanding of nature in which all things have an intended role to play in a divine cosmic order. In the 17th century, the new method of modern science rejected the Aristotelian approach, however, this new approach was slow to take root in the biological sciences, the last bastion of the concept of fixed natural types. The biological classification introduced by Carl Linnaeus in 1735 explicitly recognized the nature of species relationships. Other naturalists of this time speculated on the change of species over time according to natural laws

6. Aposematismus – Aposematism was a new term coined by Edward Bagnall Poulton for Alfred Russel Wallaces concept of warning coloration. It describes a family of antipredator adaptations in which a signal is associated with the unprofitability of a prey item to potential predators. Aposematism always involves an advertising signal, the warning signal may take the form of conspicuous animal coloration, sounds, odours or other perceivable characteristics. Aposematic signals are beneficial for both the predator and prey, since both avoid potential harm, aposematism is exploited in Müllerian mimicry, where species with strong defences evolve to resemble one another. By mimicking similarly coloured species, the signal to predators is shared. Warning signals do not necessarily require that a species actually possesses chemical or physical defences to deter predators, the evolution of a warning signal by a mimicking species that resembles a species that possesses strong defences is known as Batesian mimicry. The term aposematism was coined by the English zoologist Edward Bagnall Poulton in his 1890 book The Colours of Animals and he based the term on the Ancient Greek words ἀπό apo away, ση̑μα sēma sign, referring to signs that warn other animals away. The function of aposematism is to prevent attack, by warning potential predators that the animal has defences such as being unpalatable or poisonous. The easily detected warning is a defence mechanism, and the non-visible defences are secondary. Aposematic signals are primarily visual, using bright colours and high-contrast patterns such as stripes, Warning signals are honest indications of noxious prey, because conspicuousness evolves in tandem with noxiousness. Thus, the brighter and more conspicuous the organism, the more toxic it usually is, the most common and effective colours are red, yellow, black and white. These colours provide strong contrast with green foliage, resist changes in shadow and lighting, have strong contrast, are highly chromatic, Warning colouration evolves in response to background, light conditions, and predator vision. Visible signals may be accompanied by odours, sounds or behaviour to provide a signal which is more effectively detected by predators. Unpalatability, broadly understood, can be created in a variety of ways, tiger moths advertise their unpalatability by either producing ultrasonic noises which warn bats to avoid them, or by warning postures which expose brightly coloured body parts, or exposing eyespots. Velvet ants such as Dasymutilla occidentalis both have bright colours and produce audible noises when grabbed, which serve to reinforce the warning, among mammals, predators can be dissuaded when a smaller animal is aggressive and able to defend itself, as for example in honey badgers. Aposematism is widespread in insects, but less so in vertebrates, being confined to a smaller number of reptile, amphibian. Perhaps the most numerous aposematic vertebrates are the dart frogs. Some plants are thought to employ aposematism to warn herbivores of unpalatable chemicals or physical defences such as prickled leaves or thorns, many insects, such as cinnabar moth caterpillars, acquire toxic chemicals from their host plants

7. Tarnung (Biologie) – In ecology, crypsis is the ability of an animal to avoid observation or detection by other animals. It may be a strategy or an antipredator adaptation. Methods include camouflage, nocturnality, subterranean lifestyle, and mimicry, crypsis can involve visual, olfactory, or auditory concealment. When it is visual, the cryptic coloration, effectively a synonym for animal camouflage, is sometimes used. Cryptic animals include the tawny frogmouth, the tuatara, some jellyfish, the sea dragon. Methods of crypsis include camouflage, nocturnality, and subterranean lifestyle, camouflage involves a variety of methods, from disruptive coloration to transparency and some forms of mimicry. As a strategy, crypsis is used by predators against prey, crypsis also applies to eggs and pheromone production. Crypsis can in principle involve visual, olfactory, or auditory camouflage, such animals may resemble rocks, sand, twigs, leaves, and even bird droppings. Countershading, the use of different colors on upper and lower surfaces in graduating tones from a belly to a darker back, is common in the sea. Where the background is brighter than is possible even with white pigment, counter-illumination in marine animals, such as squid, some animals actively camouflage themselves with local materials. The decorator crabs attach plants, animals, small stones, or shell fragments to their carapaces to provide camouflage that matches the local environment, some species preferentially select stinging animals such as sea anemones or noxious plants, benefiting from aposematism as well as or instead of crypsis. Some animals, in terrestrial and aquatic environments, appear to camouflage their odor, which might otherwise attract predators. Numerous arthropods, both insects and spiders, mimic ants, whether to avoid predation, to hunt ants, pirate perch may exhibit chemical crypsis, making them undetectable to frogs and insects colonizing ponds. In the latter type of moth, detailed analyses failed to support a phantom echo mechanism underlying sonar jamming, different aspects of crypsis and sensory abilities may be more or less pronounced in given predator-prey species pairs. Zoologists need special methods to study cryptic animals, including techniques such as radio tracking, mark and recapture. Cryptic animals tend to be overlooked in studies of biodiversity and ecological risk assessment, caterpillar that resembles bird droppings on leaves

8. Orchideen – The Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and often fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family. Along with the Asteraceae, they are one of the two largest families of flowering plants, the Orchidaceae have about 28,000 currently accepted species, distributed in about 763 genera. The determination of which family is larger is still under debate, regardless, the number of orchid species nearly equals the number of bony fishes and is more than twice the number of bird species, and about four times the number of mammal species. The family also encompasses about 6–11% of all seed plants, the largest genera are Bulbophyllum, Epidendrum, Dendrobium and Pleurothallis. The family also includes Vanilla, Orchis, and many cultivated plants such as Phalaenopsis. Moreover, since the introduction of species into cultivation in the 19th century, horticulturists have produced more than 100,000 hybrids. Orchids are easily distinguished from plants, as they share some very evident, shared derived characteristics. Among these are, bilateral symmetry of the flower, many flowers, a nearly always highly modified petal, fused stamens and carpels. All orchids are perennial herbs that lack any permanent woody structure and they can grow according to two patterns, Monopodial, The stem grows from a single bud, leaves are added from the apex each year and the stem grows longer accordingly. The stem of orchids with a monopodial growth can reach several metres in length, as in Vanda, Sympodial, Sympodial orchids have a front and a back. The plant produces a series of adjacent shoots which grow to a size, bloom. Sympodial orchids grow laterally rather than vertically, following the surface of their support, the growth continues by development of new leads, with their own leaves and roots, sprouting from or next to those of the previous year, as in Cattleya. While a new lead is developing, the rhizome may start its growth again from a so-called eye, Sympodial orchids may have visible pseudobulbs joined by a rhizome, which creeps along the top or just beneath the soil. Terrestrial orchids may be rhizomatous or form corms or tubers, the root caps of terrestrial orchids are smooth and white. Some sympodial terrestrial orchids, such as Orchis and Ophrys, have two subterranean tuberous roots, one is used as a food reserve for wintry periods, and provides for the development of the other one, from which visible growth develops. In warm and constantly humid climates, many terrestrial orchids do not need pseudobulbs, epiphytic orchids, those that grow upon a support, have modified aerial roots that can sometimes be a few meters long. In the older parts of the roots, a modified spongy epidermis and it is made of dead cells and can have a silvery-grey, white or brown appearance. In some orchids, the velamen includes spongy and fibrous bodies near the passage cells, the cells of the root epidermis grow at a right angle to the axis of the root to allow them to get a firm grasp on their support

9. Bienenkönigin – The term queen bee is typically used to refer to an adult, mated female that lives in a honey bee colony or hive, she is usually the mother of most, if not all, of the bees in the beehive. The queens are developed from larvae selected by worker bees and specially fed in order to sexually mature. There is normally only one adult, mated queen in a hive, in case the bees will usually follow. The term queen bee can be generally applied to any dominant reproductive female in a colony of a eusocial bee species other than honey bees. However, as in the Brazilian stingless bee Schwarziana quadripunctata, a single nest may have multiple queens or even dwarf queens, when conditions are favorable for swarming, the queen will start laying eggs in queen cups. A virgin queen will develop from a fertilized egg, the young queen larva develops differently because it is more heavily fed royal jelly, a protein-rich secretion from glands on the heads of young workers. If not for being heavily fed royal jelly, the queen larva would have developed into a worker bee. All bee larvae are fed royal jelly for the first few days after hatching. As a result of the difference in diet, the queen will develop into a mature female. Queens are raised in specially constructed queen cells, the fully constructed queen cells have a peanut-like shape and texture. Queen cells start out as queen cups, queen cups are larger than the cells of normal brood comb and are oriented vertically instead of horizontally. Worker bees will only build up the queen cup once the queen has laid an egg in a queen cup. In general, the old queen starts laying eggs into queen cups when conditions are right for swarming or supersedure, swarm cells hang from the bottom of a frame while supersedure queens or emergency queens are generally raised in cells built out from the face of a frame. As the young queen larva pupates with her head down, the cap the queen cell with beeswax. When ready to emerge, the queen will chew a circular cut around the cap of her cell. Often the cap swings open when most of the cut is made, during swarming season, the old queen will likely leave with the prime swarm before the first virgin queen emerges from a queen cell. A virgin queen is a bee that has not mated with a drone. Virgins are intermediate in size between workers and mated, laying queens, and are more active than the latter

10. Hochzeitsflug – Nuptial flight is an important phase in the reproduction of most ant, termite, and some bee species. During the flight, virgin queens mate with males and then land to start a new colony, or, in the case of honey bees, a mature ant colony seasonally produces winged virgin queens and males. Fertilized eggs usually develop into wingless, sterile workers, but may develop into virgin queens if the larvae receive special attention, within a few days after they have emerged from the pupa case, males are quickly converted into single-purpose sexual missiles. Young queens and males stay in their parent colony until conditions are right for the nuptial flight, the flight requires clear weather since rain is disruptive for flying insects. Different colonies of the species often use environmental cues to synchronize the release of males and queens so that they can mate with individuals from other nests. The actual take off from the parent colony is also often synchronized to overwhelm their predators, typically the virgin queens and males first scatter to ensure outcrossing. The queens then release pheromones to attract males, however, the queens often try to escape the males, allowing only the fastest and the fittest males to mate. One queen usually mates with several males, the sperm is stored in a special organ, known as a spermatheca, in the queens abdomen, and lasts throughout her lifetime. This can be as long as 20 years, during which time the sperm can be used to fertilize tens of millions of eggs, the males have evolved for the single purpose of inseminating the queen. Male honey bees cant even feed themselves for the first few days of their lives, during the quick and violent mating, the male literally explodes his internal genitalia into the genital chamber of the queen and quickly dies. The young mated queens land and, in the case of most ants and all termites and they then attempt to find a new colony. The details of this vary from species to species, but typically involve the excavation of the colonys first chamber, from this point the queen continuously lays eggs which hatch into larvae, exclusively destined to develop into worker ants. The queen usually nurses the first brood alone, after the first workers appear, the queens role in the colony typically becomes one of exclusive egg-laying. For an example of a colony founding process, see Atta sexdens, the young queens have an extremely high failure rate. During its lifetime a large ant colony can send out millions of virgin queens. Assuming that the number of ant colonies in the area remains constant. The rest are destroyed by predators, environmental hazards or failures in raising the first brood at various stages of the process and this strict selection ensures that the queen has to be both extremely fit and extremely lucky to pass on her genes to the next generation. Not all ants follow the pattern described above


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