Sir Muhammad Iqbal
Allama Muhammad Iqbal
(1877-11-09)9 November 1877
Sialkot, Punjab Province, British India,
(now in Punjab, Pakistan)
|Died||21 April 1938(1938-04-21) (aged 60)|
Lahore, Punjab, British India
(now in Punjab, Pakistan)
|Other names||Poet of the East|
|Alma mater||Scotch Mission College(F.A.)|
Government College(B.A., M.A.)
University of Cambridge(B.A.)
University of Munich(Ph.D.)
|Notable work||The Secrets of the Self, The Secrets of Selflessness, Message from the East, Persian Psalms, Javid Nama (more works)|
|Urdu poetry, Persian poetry, Law|
|Two-nation theory, Allahabad Address|
SirDoctor Allama Muhammad Iqbal (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was a Muslim poet and philosopher who was born in Sialkot town, in British India (which is now in Pakistan). He became the national poet of Pakistan. He is also known as the poet of East. He wrote poetry in Urdu and Persian. His poetry is considered to be revolutionary.  His vision of an independent state for the Muslims of British India was a starting point for the creation of Pakistan. He is commonly referred to as Allama Iqbal.
Origins[change | change source]
Allama was born as Muhammad Iqbal, in Sialkot, Punjab, then British India, on 9th November 1877. His family migrated long before, from Kashmir to Sialkot. His father was Sheikh Noor Muhammad and his mother was Imam Bibi, who worked in a small government job but later started his own business. Both Allama Iqbal's mother and father were very pious and religious-minded people and devoted to a simple life. They had six children, two sons, Ata Muhammad and Muhammad Iqbal and four daughters.
After early Islamic education and then secondary at a small school in Sialkot, Iqbal was admitted to the Scottish Murray College, Sialkot, where he topped the higher secondary examinations and got a scholarship to study at the famous Government College, Lahore, for BA. On going to live in the hostel there, Iqbal met Professor Arnold, an English teacher who taught many things to Iqbal and guided him in his studies of philosophy and literature.
Early career[change | change source]
At this time, Iqbal also became well known as a new poet and writer. He used to go to attend a 'Mushaira' at the haveli of Hakim Syed Aminuddin, in BhaatiGate area of Old Lahore city—here, he met many famous poets and writers and also began to write good poems which became very popular. He was guided by Mirza Dagh, Mirza Gurgani, Hakim Amin uddin, Hakim Shuja uddin and Sir Abdul Qadir. His first famous poem, Koh i Himala was also printed in Makhzan magazine, owned by Hakim Shuja uddin and Sir Abdul Qadir
After doing his BA and MA from Government College, Lahore, Iqbal was appointed a professor at this same institution and after some time, in 1905, he was selected for higher studies in England and Europe. He went and studied in Cambridge University and then also law at London University, and then he went to Munich, Germany, where he took a PHD degree. After all his study, Iqbal decided to go back and teach and also practice law in India.Allama Iqbal was a great poet, thinker and philosopher.
Later career, poetic and ideological work[change | change source]
Although faced by many difficulties, Iqbal followed this plan. He taught some senior classes at Government College and also practiced Law at Lahore High Court. At the same time, he wrote many famous poems such as Asrar i Khudi, Ramuz i Bekhudi, Payam i Mashriq, Zabur i Ajam, Bang i Dara, Bal i Jibrail, Zarb i Kalim and etc. Because of his learning and knowledge, people soon began to call him 'Allama' Iqbal and in 1922, King George V of Britain, made him a knight, giving him the title of Allama 'Sir' Muhammad Iqbal.He was awarded 5 awards
Ideological work[change | change source]
Allama Iqbal was a poet and a philosopher, he was always concerned about the thoughts and ideas and condition of Muslims everywhere, but specially Indian Muslims who were under British Rule and also threatened by Hindu majority population. Iqbal believed strongly in Sir Syed Ahmed Khan's earlier idea about 'Two Nation theory' that Muslims and Hindus were two separate nations and should be allowed to live separately. He put forward this idea again in his famous Allahabad Address of Muslim League, in 1930, and also preached this in his poems and lectures. Allama's words and ideas inspired many Muslims, some of whom became leaders of the Muslim League, and struggled to obtain Pakistan later on. He was very popular amongst the Muslim masses too.
Death[change | change source]
Allama Iqbal died in Lahore, on 21st April 1938, and is buried near the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore. His message and ideas lived on. Under the leadership of Quaid i Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the Muslims of India were able in August 1947 to achieve the partition of India.
References[change | change source]
Related pages[change | change source]
Allama Mohammad Iqbal the great poet and scholar of Muslims were born on 9th November 1877 at Sialkot a city of Province Punjab. His grandfather lived in Kashmir who was Kashmiri Pundits then he embraced Islam and migrated to Sialkot. Father of Iqbal name was Sheikh Noor Mohammad who was a good tailor and his mother was a polite and humble woman whose name was Imam Bibi and she was always ready to help her neighbors and died on 9 November 1914. Iqbal loved his mother very much.
Sheikh Allama Mohammad Iqbal was four years old when he started his study from birth place Sialkot. Firstly he admitted to the mosque where he learned the Quran and Arabic language from his lovely teacher Syed Mir Hassan that was the head of madrassa and professor of Arabic language at Scotch Mission College in Sialkot. Iqbal completed his matriculation in same institute in 1893. After that he completed F.A degree from Murrey College Sialkot in 1895. He had interest in Philosophy and received degree B.A with English literature from Government College Lahore in 1897. Iqbal went to Germany and completed his Master degree in 1899 and selected as a junior professor of philosophy at Government College Lahore.
Allama Mohammad Iqbal started learn the knowledge of Arabic and Persian from Mr. Hassan that was a good teacher and completed his matriculation and F.A in 1893 and 1895 respectively. He had interested in Poetry and started the classes from Mein Mirza Arshad Gorani and Daagh Dehlvi also had teaches poetry. He has been translated into many European language when his work was famous and due to his work he recognized and quoted as “Poet of the East” by academics and institutions and media
Allama Iqbal joined the politics in 1930 and linked the Muslim League with the reference of Quaid-e-Azam. Iqbal was the person who gave the idea for seprate Muslim Nation state. He had remained active in the Muslim League. He did not support Indian involvement in World War I and remained in close touch with Muslim political leaders such as Mohammad Ali Jouhar and Mohammad Ali Jinnah. He won the province seat and selected as a member of provincial assembly. He said that “I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sindh and Balochistan amalgamated into a single State. Self-government within the British Empire, or without the British Empire, the formation of a consolidated North-West Indian Muslim State appears to me to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of North-West India”.
Allama Mohammad Iqbal started Law in 1934 and England Government gave him an address of ‘Sir’. He started poetry from private teacher who was great and pious man and his Poetry was gifted by God in him. He wrote many books for his students. Some books names are Israr-e-Khudi, Ramooz-e-Bekhudi, Payam-e-Mashriq, Bang-e-Dara and Baal-e-Jibreel. These books were very famous.
Ilm ul Iqtisad-1903
Poetic books in Persian
Pas Cheh Bayed Kard ai Aqwam-e-Sharq-1936
Poetic books in Urdu
Books in English
The Development of Metaphysics in Persia-1908
The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam-1930
Last moments of Iqbal
After suffering for months from his illness, Iqbal died in Lahore on 21 April 1938. His tomb is located in Hazuri Bagh, the enclosed garden between the entrance of the Badshahi Mosque and the Lahore Fort, and official guards are maintained there by the Government of Pakistan. Government and public organizations have sponsored the establishment of colleges and schools dedicated to Iqbal, and have established the Iqbal Academy to research, teach and preserve the works, literature and philosophy of Iqbal.