Ignou Deled 2014 Assignment Notebook

NIOS DLED Assignment Course-503 Full Answer In English. Here are all the answer of dled assignment course-503. I hope this can help you through your assignment.

ASSIGNMENT REFERENCE MATERIAL (2017-18)

Course-503

LEARNING LANGUAGES AT ELEMENTARY LEVEL

ASSIGNMENT-I

Q1. Explain the meaning of ‘fine motor skills’. How these skills can be developed in
children?

Ans. Fine motor skills involve the use of the smaller muscle of the hands, commonly in activities like using pencils, scissors, construction with Lego or duplo, doing up buttons and opening lunch boxes. Fine motor skill efficiency significantly influences the quality of the task outcome as well as the speed of task performance. Efficient fine motor skills require a number of independent skills to work together to appropriately manipulate the object or perform the task.

Fine motor skills let kids perform crucial tasks like reaching and grasping, moving objects and using tools like crayons, pencils and scissors. As kids get better at using their hands, their hand-eye coordination improves. They also learn skills they need to succeed in school, such as drawing and writing. Developing these abilities helps kids become more independent and understand how their bodies work. And as they learn how to have an impact on the world around them, their self-esteem may grow, too.

In order to encourage the development of these skills, children should be allowed to manipulate solid objects as they see fit. Holding, turning, twisting and playing with objects develops grasping ability in children. Another very important activity that provides children with enjoyment in addition to developing motor skills, essential for writing, is drawing. Therefore, children should be encouraged to draw. Children’s early drawings often resemble meaningless scribbles which later evolve into discernible shapes and figures.

Apart from drawing, some other activities that help develop the motor skills necessary for writing include games such as pouring water into a container, stringing beads and flowers, making objects out of clay or dough, etc. The home environment of the child provides him/her with enough opportunity to engage in such activities. However, this is not always the case. Therefore, it is necessary for teachers to help children engage in such activities wherever required.

Practicing Letters, Words, Sentences: Generally, it is believed that achievement of sentence writing is helped by practicing writing letters and then words again and again. This is true to a certain extent, but if children are made to engage in tedious repetition of letters and words, they may be disenchanted with writing before they even begin to write. Therefore, while individual letters and carnivals are useful in introducing children to writing, they might not be meaningful to children unless their relationship with whole words or sentences is made clear.

Two things – respecting children’s abilities and creating meaningful contexts in which they can learn are of great importance in teaching children to write. It is necessary to appreciate the fact that the child has an immense innate capability to learn language. They learn their native languages naturally through meaningful social experiences involving speaking and listening. Similarly, they grasp the rules of writing mostly through meaningful experiences involving written material.

In teaching, we often act under the assumption that children need to be told everything and that they would not understand unless they are told. This, however, is not true. It is necessary to get rid of this mindset and to start respecting the capabilities of children. Children have a unique ability to write before coming to school. It is normal for children to create figures and symbols in sand, on the floor or on paper and to make up stories about them. For them, these drawings are not meaningless, but rather they represent a unique script through which they express what they wish to say. Children should be given the opportunity to make full use of their abilities. Their learning process does not involve joining pieces of knowledge together to get the complete picture, but in fact it involves the
opposite. The whole picture is formed first, and then the specifics become clear in different ways. Unless a meaningful whole is supplied, the small specifics, such as individual letters of the varnmala or alphabet, will not make sense and will be boring.

Or

Which out of accuracy and fluency in language, you, as a language teacher, would give
priority while facilitating learning of language and why?

Ans. Accuracy is the ability to produce correct sentences using correct grammar and vocabulary. On the other hand, fluency is the ability to produce language easily and smoothly. It is very difficult to choose where accuracy should be stressed over fluency and vice versa.

The level of accuracy of a child at primary level is different from that of an adult. A child learns language by committing mistakes. A child’s errors help her in learning and simultaneously even while committing error she is following the rules of language. For instance, a 3 year old child speaks in order to express herself: Mummy khilona chahiye hai. khana chahiye hai.

The child knows that every sentence ends with the word “hai” and therefore she uses “hai” after “chahiye”. As per language rules, “chahiye” is an auxiliary verb. Another auxiliary verb “tha” is used along with “chahiye”, only in past tense. Although the child is unaware of this rule but she uses it.

In reference to the learning proficiency, fluency means the ability through which a child is spontaneously able to express herself by speaking, reading and writing. In this, emphasis is laid on meaning and context rather than on grammatical errors. Today a language teacher faces a huge dilemma, as to which out of the two should she seriously pursue? Both the perspectives are present in front of us.

Traditional teachers give greater importance to accuracy, in language learning. They force the children to read and write in correct grammatical terms. For this, they test the children through various periodic assessments. In most of the classes children are hardly given an opportunity to improve by recognizing their own errors. Examination centered approach is influenced by this accuracy based perspective.

Another group of teachers believe that language is the medium for expression of feelings and experiences. They give more importance to fluency. Instead of grammar, they lay focus on understanding the meaning and reference, along with this, they emphasize that the children speaking fluently should be able to express themselves in such a way that the listener understands it correctly. These teachers believe; that since initiation, the more the child will make use of language, the more her level of fluency will rise.

After having a look at both the perspectives, in fact, it seems that both stand correct in their own place. In order to learn language from an overall perspective, children have to be skilled in both. Reaching class 10, children start using language with fluency. It is then that we should focus on accuracy because in child’s language development, timely and appropriate help plays a very important role.

Q2. Critically analyse the strengths and limitations of any two methods through which ‘reading’ can be developed as skill among children.

Ans. Some of the methods of teaching reading and their shortcomings are as follows:

(1)  Knowing the rules of reading quickly:  Actually, there are no rules for reading. At least none that can be simplified and defined for children. All fluent readers develop the knowledge necessary to read but they develop it from the effort to read rather than by being told. This process is akin to the process of the child acquiring oral language. The child is able to develop the rules for articulation and comprehension without being taught any formal rules. There is no evidence to suggest that teaching grammar helps in making children develop the ability to speak. There is also no evidence indicating that practicing pronunciation or other non-reading tasks help in developing reading ability.

(2)  For reading, the child has to remember rules of pronunciation and follow them:  One view which is widely accepted that the ability to read comes from being able to link sound to its corresponding symbolic representation. We, however, know reading does not end or begin at being able to pronounce the text. We have to grasp the meaning even before we pronounce the word unless we know the word we cannot speak it. Converting letters to sound is not only unnecessary but also a waste of effort. If we look carefully, it is obvious that a fluent reader does not get into changing letters to sounds. Such a process does not help in making meaning; it rather takes one away from it. In spite of this, it is often argued that children will have to develop competence in pronunciation of the word, part by part, as per letters used otherwise they will not be able to recognise words they have not seen earlier.

Some of the enablers for learning to read are as follows:

(1)  Contextual reading material:  Students need context to learn language and learn to read. Stories and poems also form interesting contexts. While relating a story a teacher should stop in between and let students complete what would follow. Many important concepts are natural parts of the stories (for example- big, small, near-far, fat-thin etc.). Students acquire or consolidate them easily through a story. The context of the story introduces these and when enacted their meaning gets clearer. Besides, the student gets an opportunity to place herself in different characters and in imaginary situations. Initially students mimic and copy only the gross visible features of the characters.

(2)  Reading must be purposeful and challenging:  Reading material for students must be useful, meaningful and challenging. Whenever we read something, we read it for some purpose. These could be, for example, reading for fun, reading due to curiosity, reading to understand the sequence of events in a story, to know what happens at the end of story, to learn about, what is happening around and find whether such materials are even being written or not. If they are given challenges of this kind, challenges that give them opportunity to learn more, talk about what they have learnt and share their experiences, they will learn to read faster. If reaching the meaning of a text to find something that they want to know is a challenge, they will feel inspired to make an effort.

Or

Enumerate the principles to be followed to choose material for language laboratories.

Ans. Some important principles that can help the teacher to use materials appropriately in the classrooms are as follows:

(1)  To store the materials properly is essential but it is equally important to ensure that it can be quickly distributed to children. If children have to get materials and return them then the system of distribution and collection must involve children. They must feel responsible and help. Such a participation would also ensure that the total time taken for distribution and collecting back is not too much.

(2)  Material should be easy to reach. Even if only the teacher has to use the material, the preparations must be made in advance. It is upsetting for children to wait while the teacher searches for the appropriate material to begin. The continuity and interest in learning gets broken.

(3)  If we have to use a lot of material then it is better to use them one by one. Only when there is a need to show a relationship between different materials or show the reaction between them that we can use them together.

(4)  Breakage of materials is possible during use, it is necessary that there is an acceptance of damage and writing off and replacement of materials in the system. When children read books handle charts, use chalks or colours these materials will get torn, broken or consumed. Any system that does not allow for such processes cannot encourage the use of materials.

(5)  It is important to remember that the materials must be used for learning and not just for display. Materials will not teach on their own; teachers must know which material is useful in which situation. TLM is only a tool for making lessons meaningful. The work of choosing teaching materials has to be done by the teacher keeping the interest and abilities of children in mind.

The various principles or basis of choosing study material are as follows:

(1)  The material should be such that they fulfill the educational objectives. That means they make possible the work that we want to do and the opportunity we want to provide children. For example, if we want children to develop imagination and express their ideas in an organized manner, we need to pick up a picture that can give them this opportunity.

(2)  The material should be usable for diverse purposes. We should procure such materials and prepare teachers so that they can use materials in a flexible way.

(3)  The materials should be easily available and require no extra effort. It is also necessary that they should be available in sufficient quantity and not be expensive. Children should be able to use it. Models of thermocol that get damaged and break on touching are not good materials. We must remember that most of the materials should be for use of children.

(4)  The material that children have to use must be such that it does not require very elaborate precautions. They should not be security hazard.

(5) It is necessary that both teachers and children be participants in the process of choosing and developing materials. It is not appropriate to pre-decide, choose and then send materials to the school and teachers.

(6) Participation of teacher and children in selecting materials is essential. They must also have opportunity to learn to and think about ways of using the materials in classrooms.

NIOS DLED Assignment Course-503 Full Answer In English

ASSIGNMENT-II

Q1. Enumerate the various methods which can be used to facilitate the learning of language.

Ans. Some important methods of language-teaching methods are as follows:

(1)  Grammar Translation method:  The grammar–translation method is a method of teaching foreign languages derived from the classical (sometimes called traditional) method of teaching Greek and Latin. In grammar–translation classes, students learn grammatical rules and then apply those rules by translating sentences between the target language and the native language. Advanced students may be required to translate whole texts word-for-word. The method has two main goals: to enable students to read and translate literature written in the source language, and to further students’ general intellectual development. The biggest limitation of this method is that the children do not acquire proficiency in listening and speaking the language.

(2)  Communicative method:  Communicative language teaching (CLT), or the communicative method, is an approach to language teaching that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of study. Language learners in environments utilizing CLT techniques learn and practice the target language through interaction with one another and the instructor, study of “authentic texts” (those written in the target language for purposes other than language learning), and use of the language in class combined with use of the language outside of class. Learners converse about personal experiences with partners, and instructors teach topics outside of the realm of traditional grammar in order to promote language skills in all types of situations. This method also claims to encourage learners to incorporate their personal experiences into their language learning environment and focus on the learning experience in addition to the learning of the target language. According to CLT, the goal of language education is the ability to communicate in the target language.

(3)  Natural Approach:  The Natural Approach is a language learning theory developed by Drs. Stephen Krashen of USC and Tracy Terrell of the University of California, San Diego. This method gives maximum attention to the fact that in language teaching the focus should not be on the teacher or the teaching-learning material but on the learner (student). This fact was also affected by researches done in linguistics. From these researches it also became clear that making mistakes is an essential step in the process of acquiring language. On analyzing these errors it was also found that these errors are in fact indicators of a child’s knowledge and learning process.

The theory is based on the radical notion that we all learn language in the same way. According to this method, children have innate ability to acquire language from birth. A 4-year old internalizes the rules of her language and does not make mistakes in speaking even before entering school. That is why the Natural Approach focuses on giving the child a tension free environment for learning language as well as providing interesting and challenging teaching–learning material of their level.

(4)  Audio Lingual Method:  With the outbreak of World War II armies needed to become orally proficient in the languages of their allies and enemies as quickly as possible. This teaching technique was initially called the Army Method, and was the first to be based on linguistic theory and behavioral psychology.

Or

“Creation of suitable environment is an important pre-requisite for language learning”. Discuss.

Ans. Even though we have the sensory organs and the tendency to speak, no child can learn language until she hears it being spoken and practises speech. Each child learns the language of her group-the way she speaks, the words she uses and the accent of her speech. The child who grows up without contact with people, she cannot speak normally and it will be difficult to teach her later. Also the children who are hard of hearing or deaf, begin to babble at the same time as other children but after some time the amount of babbling decreases, since they do not get a feedback. If not provided a hearing aid, the child will grow up they do not get a feedback. If not provided a hearing aid, the child will grow up without learning to speak. This brings out the importance of environmental factors in language acquisition.

Research studies have shown that when parents are sensitive to the child’s speech and respond to her utterances, the child’s language develops. A rich language environment leads to better speech development. We know that children living in institutions generally show lower levels of language development compared to children in families. A positive emotional relationship with the parents helps the child to feel secure and lays the foundation for language acquisition.

It is clear that the child must be maturationally ready to learn to speak and must get opportunities for hearing and practicing speech. Adults and older children help the infant in acquiring language, especially during the first year of the child’s life, in the following ways:

(i)  Caregivers, whether adults or children, keep their language simple when they are talking to infants, especially those only a few months old. They use short and simple sentences, speak in an exaggerated manner and do not use pronouns like ‘I’ or ‘you’ since these are difficult for the infant to understand. Adults call out the child’s name rather than saying ‘you’ and call themselves ‘mummy’, ‘daddy’ or ‘aunty’ rather than ‘I’. They also produce nonsense sounds, i.e. those which have no meaning, but which the child delights to hear. They respond to the child’s cooing and babbling by talking to her, imitating her and encouraging her. Most of this modification in the way of talking is
instinctive. Caregivers also see what type of speech the infant responds to most and then use that in their interactions.

(ii)  When the infant is around 4-5 months of age, the caregivers begin to show them toys and household objects. While showing these they refer to them by their names and describe them a little. Siblings delight in such activities with the baby and are untiring in their efforts to attract her attention to an object. By 6-7 months the infant also begins to point at objects, picks them up and shows them to people. This increases the interaction between caregivers and the child. By the time the infant is 7-8 months old, the family members also begin to talk about what is going on around the child. They refer to their own actions and the actions of the child. While walking with the infant on the road the father, on seeing a fruit seller, is likely to say: “Banto, look! Bananas! See, there! Banto, eats banana everyday, don’t you? It tastes good, mm……?”

Thus, in a normal environment, the child is continuously surrounded by people who talk to each other and her. The infant picks up new words from the context in which they are spoken and in this manner her language develops.

(iii)  Lullabies and songs are a delightful part of the caregiver-child relationship. There is hardly anyone of us who grew up without hearing them. Some of the songs refer to everyday events like eating, bathing and sleeping. Some of them are about myths and stories. Infants enjoy the rhythm of the lullabies greatly. In addition, they also learn new words. In this way, by 6-7 months the infant begins to recognize the sound and meaning of commonly used words. The infant is able to understand language not because she understands all the words that we use. She may understand one or two words but she relies on the gestures used; the tone of the voice and the context in which they are spoken. When the father says: “No, don’t touch that!”, the child is able to understand because he points to the forbidden object, shakes his head and raises his voice to convey anger or anxiety. This brings us to another aspect of language development that we must keep in mind. At any age, the child is able to comprehend more than she is able to speak.

(iv) When children are around 9-10 months of age, parents and relatives begin to play language games with them. They say a word like “bye-bye” and encourage the child to reproduce it. They also teach her to wave by showing her the gesture. Increasing competency in language helps the baby to interact with more people and form relationships with them and this helps in her social and emotional development. Language helps her to learn about people and objects. Thus, we see that language influences development of cognition and social relationships. This shows how development in one area influences development in other areas as well.

Q2. Critically analyse any two methods which can be used to develop ‘writing skills’ for their strengths and limitations.

Ans. Writing is an important form of communication and a key part of education. It takes time to develop strong writing skills, and it can be a tough task to accomplish. Following are some of the activities to develop writing skills among lower classes:

(1)  Picture composition: The teacher can give a picture to students and ask them to write about it. This writing can include a wide variety of compositions. They may be asked to write a story, to describe the picture, to write a dialogue between the characters, to fill in a missing gap in the picture and write about it, etc. When a series of pictures depicting a story is provided, they can be asked to write the story.

(2)  Continuing the story: The teacher can tell the beginning of a story, and can ask to write what they think happened next.

(3)  Independent writing: The teacher can as to children to write about something that they evidently show great interest in or something that they talk about a lot. This will not only help to develop writing skills, but may point the teacher towards more techniques for facilitating learning.

(4)  Dictation: The teacher can speak aloud some words and ask the children to write them to see if they are able to link the spoken sounds to their written forms.

(5)  Developing stories from given outlines: The teacher can give a rough outline of a story in the form of a series of words and phrases, and then ask to build a story using these words and phrases.

(6)  Last-letter-first: The teacher can make some groups of students and ask to write down words one by one, such that the first letter of the word they write is the last letter of the word that came before. Through this activity, the teacher can identify the problem areas without pointing them out directly to the child.

(7)  Topic of interest: The teacher can let children talk about a topic of their interest and write down what they have said. This will clarify the communicative purpose of writing and will clarify the link between speech and writing.

(8)  Rhyming words: The teacher can ask to students to come up with words which rhyme with the given word, or are similar in sound of the given word.

Higher forms of writing are taught in schools for the development of expression, creativity and communicative ability. Those higher forms are as follows:

(1)  Paragraph writing: Paragraph writing remains one of the most important parts of writing. The paragraph serves as a container for each of the ideas of an essay or other piece of writing. It helps children learn how to think and write focusing on one theme. It is a good exercise for encouraging young children to express themselves coherently and also forms the basis for essay writing. It is advisable to ask children to write about things that they find relevant to their lives.

(2)  Essay writing: An essay is a short piece of writing that discusses, describes and analyses one topic. It can discuss a subject directly or indirectly, seriously or humorously. Essay writing is the most important branch of composition. In the process of essay writing, the student has to gather up ideas associated with the topic, analyze them, reject the irrelevant ideas and choose the relevant ones. This process acts as health tonic to the powers of the mind of the student. His intelligence grows keener, reason sharper and imagination livelier.

(3)  Letter writing: Unlike essays, letters have a very specific communicative purpose. Therefore, they do not require the elaboration of points as required in essays. On the other hand, they do require a certain skill in writing to communicate. The style of writing will vary according to the writer’s relationship with the recipient. The writer needs to understand how the recipient will react to the content of their message.

(4) Story writing: Writing stories is something every child is asked to do in school, and many children write stories in their free time, too. By writing story, children learn to organize their thoughts and use written language to communicate with readers in a variety of ways. Writing stories also helps children better read, and understand, stories written by other people.

Story writing should be introduced when children are beginning to write, so that their imagination aids their writing skills and also for older children. In the case of the latter, the aims of this exercise remain roughly the same. However, promotion of thinking skills and imaginative faculties is emphasised over learning of language. As children grow, they are expected to regard issues from different perspectives, engage in problem solving and appreciate the aesthetic qualities of writing. These skills develop through an affinity with different forms of literature. By the time they get to senior classes, children have been exposed to different forms of literature such as poems, stories, plays etc., and these further help in the development of thinking and story writing skills. In turn, story writing helps generate interest in literature and language.

(5)  Poetry writing: Writing poetry is a transferable skill that will help children write in other ways and styles. Children in smaller classes usually know only those poems which include rhyming words. Younger children enjoy rhyme and rhyming words help in generating interest and in giving children an impression of words, because of which they can read easily. Rhyming words can also generate interest in writing and develop the skill of writing on the basis of sound. Therefore, small poem making activities may be taken up with young children. Children can be asked to make up poems either individually or in groups, with their peers. This can be an enjoyable activity.

Or

“Real assessment of children’s performance should be continuous and comprehensive in its nature”. Justify.

Ans. Continuous and comprehensive assessment (CCA) emphasises on two fold objectives. These are continuity in assessment and assessment of all aspects of learning. Thus the term ‘continuous’ refers to assessment on intermittent basis rather than a onetime event. When the assessment exercises are conducted in short intervals on regular basis, the assessment tends to become continuous. In other words, it can be said that if the time interval between two consecutive assessment events can be lessened or minimised then the assessment will become continuous. In order to make the assessment process continuous, the assessment activities must be spread over the whole academic year. It means regularity of assessment, frequent unit testing, diagnosis of the learning difficulty of the learners, using corrective measures, providing feedback to the learners regarding their progress, etc. will have
to happen maximally.

The second term ‘comprehensive’ means assessment of both scholastic and co-scholastic aspect of student’s development. Since all the abilities of the learners’ development cannot be assessed through written and oral activities, there is a need to employ variety of tools and techniques (both testing and non-testing techniques) for the assessment of all the aspects of learners’ development.

‘Continuous’ is generally considered by teachers as a regular conduct of ‘tests’. Many schools are practicing weekly tests in the name of continuous assessment in all subjects. ‘Comprehensive’ is considered as combining various aspects of child’s behaviour in isolation. Personal-social qualities (empathy, cooperation, self-discipline, taking initiatives etc.) are judged in isolation and are being graded on four/five point scale, which appears impractical.

By continuously observing the learners to see what they know and can do, the teacher can make sure that no learner fails. Everyone is given a chance to succeed and more attention is given to children who were falling behind. Continuous assessment process fosters cooperation between the student and teacher. While the student learns to consult the teacher, classmates and other sources on aspects of her/his project work; the teacher is able to offer remedial help for further improvement in learning.

Comprehensive component means getting a sense of ‘holistic’ development of child’s progress. Progress cannot be made in a segregated manner, that is, cognitive aspects, personal-social qualities, etc. After completion of a chapter/theme, teacher would like to know whether children have learnt (assessment of learning) as s/he expected based on lesson’s objectives/learning points. For that, s/he broadly identifies the objectives of the lesson and spells out learning indicators. The teacher designs activities based on expected learning indicators. These activities need to be of varied nature. Through these questions/activities she would assess the learners and that data would be one kind of summative data of a lesson/theme. Such assessment data must be recorded by the teacher. Likewise
in one quarter, she/he would cover 7-8 lessons/topics and in this manner she/he would have substantial data covering varied aspects of child’s behaviour. It would provide data on how the child was working in groups, doing paper-pencil test, drawing pictures, reading picture, expressing orally, composing a poem/song, etc. These data would give ‘comprehensive’ picture of child’s learning and development.

NIOS DLED Assignment Course-503 Full Answer In English

ASSIGNMENT-III

Q1. With suitable example discuss the role of drama, theatre and play in developing students’
core skills in language.

Ans. The use of drama/play/theater has been used over the course of history from the time of Aristotle, who believed that theater provided people a way to release emotions, right to the beginning of the progressive movement in education, where emphasis was placed upon “doing” rather than memorizing. Integrating drama helps children in various ways. Using plays with children can:

• Improve their reading and speaking skills

• Encourage creativity

• Help them experiment with language – tone of voice, body language and their own lines if they are involved in            writing the play.

• Bring them out of themselves – some students like performing or find the script gives them confidence.

• Involve the whole class – non-speaking parts can be given to learners who do not wish to speak or are less                     confident.

In order to use drama as a linguistic activity, two features need to be included – freedom and enjoyment. No special preparation is needed by the teacher or children for conducting drama in the classroom. The teacher only needs to encourage the children to share their experiences naturally. At the primary level: any incident, story or cartoon that children see in their environment can be taken up for acting. For example, any animal, its movement, its complexion, etc. At upper primary level, the teacher should motivate children so that they form small groups wherein they themselves decide the topic, write the dialogues and act it out. At the same time, children should be encouraged to act out traditional games and folk tales as this will not only enhance their creativity but also connect them to their cultural environments.

We can enact or write the script for any play or drama. What grade would each learner get on the script written by her depends upon whether what has to be expressed is emerging in the dialogues written by him/her. We need to check if learner is able to explain his/her ideas? Is (s)he able to use words other than the words already used in the original text of drama. Are the dialogues simple, crisp and interesting? These can be the main points for assessment for drama.

Example 1

Characters:

(1) Rama, the singer

(2) Madhu, Rama’s wife

(3) Neighbors.

Rama: (sits with his harmonium and practices singing).

Do, Re, Me, Fa, So, La, Te, Do

Ist Neighbor: (to Rama’s wife) Madhu, ask your husband to stop singing. It gives me a headache.

2nd Neighbor: He thinks himself to be a good singer but he’s awful.

3rd Neighbor: He hardly sings. He croaks like a frog.

4th Neighbor: He’s indeed disgusting.

(Neighbors go out)

Rama: (Continues singing) Doe, a deer, A female deer

Ray – A Drop of golden sun

Me – A Name I call myself….

1st Neighbor: All our requests have fallen on deaf ears.

2nd Neighbor: We’ll have to teach him a lesson.

3rd Neighbor: He’s as stubborn as a mule.

4th Neighbor: (Throws a shoe at him)

Rama: No one in this village admires my talent.

Madhu: (Comes from the kitchen) Don’t worry. You keep on singing.

That person will throw the second shoe also and we will have a pair of shoes.

Following questions may be asked to children:

(1)  What other title would you like to give to this play?

(2)  Which character do you admire most in this play? Why?

(3)  (a) What is the name of Rama’s wife?

(b) Does Madhu enjoy Rama’s singing?

(4)  The 4th Neighbor throws a shoe at Rama. Suppose it falls on his face.

What would happen next? Complete the play in the same form (dialogue from) as given above.

(5)  Write a conversation between you and your friend about playing some game together.

(6)  Write a paragraph on something or someone that disturbs you in your day-to-day life. Describe how you would    tackle the problem peacefully.

(7)  Enact the play in groups.

Example 2nd: CLEVER BHOLA

Characters: Bhola, the villager

Bhola’s wife – Diya

Bhola’s child

Dabbu, the robber

Narrator: One day, Bhola was going to a nearby village. He had to cross a dense jungle. Suddenly a voice stopped      him.

Dabbu: Stop. Stop I said. If you move I’ll shoot you.

Divya: We are poor people. We have nothing with us.

Dabbu: Nonsense! Everyone says so. Give me whatever you have or I will kill you all.

Bhola: No. No. Leave us all. I’ll give you my wallet.

Dabbu: Ha!Ha!Ha! See how I befooled you. There are no bullets in this gun…. ha ha ha ha!

Bhola: Ha! Ha! Ha. ha ha!

Dabbu: Why the hell are you laughing?

Bhola: I also befooled you. There is no money in that wallet.

Dabbu: What!

Bhola: You thought yourself to be very smart. Ha! Ha! Ha!

These questions may be asked to children:

(1)  What other title would you like to give to this play?

(2)  If you were Bhola what would you have done in the same situation?

(3)  (a) What was Dabbu carrying with him? Why?

(b) Why did Divya say that they are poor people?

(4)  Suppose Dabbu takes out some bullets after Bhola befools him. Complete the play in the same form (dialogue form) as given above.

(5)  Write the play in story form.

(6)  Enact the play in groups.

Or

Develop a comprehensive plan of activities for language learning using ‘word cards’ and ‘picture cards’.

Ans. One purpose of the cards in the context of language teaching is to help children learn to decode. We can give them picture cards to match with word cards. We can also ask them to take a word card and find a word card which is similar to this one. They can put together word cards and make a story. Similarly, pictures and picture cards can be used for conversations, discussions, extending imagination, opportunities for creating descriptions and thinking of stories. These exercises can be initially oral and then can also be written. The cards can be used for any class through activities at different levels with different objectives. For example, think about the use of word cards for class-1 and then for class – 3.

It is clear that one material can be used for many purposes and their use is informed by the objectives and understanding of learning and teaching. If we consider all this then we can see that TLM is only useful when the person using it understands what the children have to learn, the steps for it and activities that can be used for it. Obviously, children have to be able to engage with these activities. Once this happens then it is not difficult to find materials for it around us.

Preparation of Picture Cards: Find or draw a set of 10-20 picture of people, places, animals and objects. Make copies of the picture set on card stock so we have one set for each student in class. In large letters, print the name of each picture on a separate card.

Step 1: Distribute picture card sets to students.

Step 2: Hold up each name card one at a time. Read the name aloud. Hold up the matching picture card. Cue students to repeat the name and hold up their matching picture cards. Repeat this activity two or three times, if appropriate, for practice.

Step 3: Randomly select a name card from the set. Hold it up and say the name aloud. Cue students
to say the name and hold up the matching picture card.

Step 4: Repeat the activity without showing the name card. Say the name of each picture and cue students to repeat the name and hold up the appropriate picture card.

Step 5: This time around hold up a word card but do not say the word aloud. Students say the word and hold up the matching picture card.

Step 6: For the final go-round do not display the word cards. Simply pronounce a word and ask students to hold up the correct picture card.

“Picture and Word” cards can be used at home, in therapy, and throughout a classroom in multiple activities and learning centers. They are beautiful large picture cards that we can customize to meet children needs. Following are few ideas:

(1) Word Wall: These large cards are great for display on a word wall. Word walls may focus on vocabulary and/or sight words.

(2) Class Stories: Display preselected picture and word cards for students to incorporate in a class story. For example place girl, boy, some animals, and food. As the class write a story together on large chart paper, children may be called to offer “what happens next” in the story. The cards may offer visual support for ideas the story such as “There was a girl who met a turtle. The turtle asked the girl, ‘do you have any apples?’….”

(3) Story Characters: Offer the picture and word cards prior to a story in teaching about characters. “Today we are going to read a story about a girl and three bears”. Or, after a story is read aloud, display picture cards which include the story characters. Ask the students to identify who the main characters in the story are.

(4) Labeling the classroom: Use Picture and Word cards to label items around the classroom. We can use our own photos of classroom materials by uploading pictures on “Our Lesson Pix” page if needed. Labeling creates a print-rich environment that links objects with pictures and with words, and giving meaning to print.

(5) Scavenger Hunt: Create groups of pictures that correspond with a unit of study or targeted phonemes. Hide the pictures around a designated area and have the students hunt for the picture cards. When they find the picture, they can share what they found with the group.

(6) Language Master: If we have a Language Master machine, we may print and attach the picture and word cards to blank Language Master cards.

A Language Master Machine is a recorder /player that has cards which slide through the machine. These cards have a strip that has a prerecorded and/or allows the teacher /therapist to record their voice. When the card is put through the machine, the audio is played. Many Special Education teachers and Speech Pathologist use a Language Master to reinforce learning concepts.

(7) Vocabulary Development: Create Picture and Word Cards to teach a vocabulary word(s) of the week. There are Level 1 words which are more concrete and Level 2 words which are more abstract or have multiple meanings. Some early childhood classrooms select one or two words for a week to practice, find, and use. To differentiate instruction, the teacher may select one level 1 and one level 2 word per week to focus on. For example, when talking about feelings at the beginning of the year, a level 1 word may be “mad” and a level 2 word may be “bursting” (burst a balloon, bursting through a door, bursting with anger, bursting with excitement).

(8) Word Hunt: Give each student a Picture and Word Card. Have them hunt through specific books for the matching word.

(9) What’s Missing?: Place 4-5 Picture and Word cards out for the students to see. Collect them and pull one card out. (Make sure the children don’t see it!) Place the remaining cards out on display and have students guess which Picture and Word card is missing.

NIOS DLED Assignment Course-503 Full Answer In English

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Course-502: Pedagogic Processes in Elementary Schools

Assignment – I

Note : Answer any two of the following questions in about 500 words.

Q1. Explain with suitable examples of four processes of observational learning. How
does imitation help in observational learning.

Ans. Learning from observation is a common and natural method of human learning. Observational learning is a type of learning that occurs as a function of observing, retaining and replicating novel behavior executed by others. Observational learning is a key learning method for children when acquiring basic tasks such as language and cultural norms. Learning through observation is not exact reproduction of the model’s behavior but developing behavior based on the observed behavior. According to Bandura, following are the distinct processes involved in observational learning:

(1)   Attention Process: We do not imitate the total behavioral of a model….rather we focus on specific that we are interested to learn. We pay attention to significant features of the behavior we want to learn. For example, a child learning to write in good handwriting watches her teacher and keenly observe the way s/he is holding the pen, moving his/her fingers, where s/he is using capital letters and does not pay attention to how the teacher is dressed or hows/he walks.

(2)   Retention Process: The ability to store information is also an important part of the learning process. Retention can be affected by a number of factors, but the ability to pull up information later and act on it is vital to observational learning. We need to remember the things observed through some way of using symbols, understanding and organising our observations. Usually, we employ two processes for retention, i.e. storing and rehearsing. Storing the things observed as visuals in our memory and then rehearsing as the sequence of actions mentally. For example, if anyone is trying to bowl like Zahir Khan, then s/he should mentally rehearse the sequences of the bowling actions of Zahir after observing him in person or in TV telecasts and forming a visual image of the actions. Bandura (1977) suggests that the best way to learn from a model is to organize and rehearse the observed behaviour cognitively (mentally with proper thinking) and then act it out.

(3)   Motor Reproduction Process: After we have retained the observed behaviour through rehearsal of the visual images, the behaviour has to be transformed into physical actions. For this, one needs two things. First, s/he must have basic requirements for the action to be performed by him/her. If one desires to be a batsman like Tendulkar, the basic requirement is the physical capability of a batsman. If one is too weak, no matter how perfectly one rehearses the sequences of batting of Tendulkar, one will not be able to perform because it would be difficult to lift and move the bat in the same manner.

The second aspect for transforming the observed behaviour to action is to actually practice the sequence of actions. Having a perfect visual imagery and mental rehearsal of the actions will not help the observer to perform the act spontaneously. To perform effectively, repeated practice combined with continuous feedback on practice and making appropriate corrections after each practice are necessary.

(4)   Motivational Process: We have come across some children who have learnt very well through observational learning as they can vividly describe the steps of action and can perform it perfectly. But often, they do not perform as and when required. In such cases, what they lack is proper motivation to act. The child is required to be motivated especially self-motivated to act. Effects of imitation in observational learning: Superficially, imitation is merely copying the behaviour of a model. There are three categories of imitative behaviour: the modelling effect, the inhibitory disinhibitory effect, and the eliciting effect, which are helpful in observational learning:

(1)   The modelling effect: It involves acquiring new behaviour as a result of observing a model.

(2)  The inhibitory effect: It is concerned with suppression of deviant behaviour of the model usually as a result of seeing the model punished for engaging in the same behaviour. The dis- inhibitory effect is the opposite of it. It occurs when a child observes the model engaged in the previously learnt deviant behaviour being rewarded for it.

(3)   The eliciting effect: It is related to responses of the model not to his/her behavioural characteristics. An illustration of the eliciting effect is the mass behaviour. In any sporting event, one person’s clapping or booing might elicit similar behaviour from others in the crowd. Sometimes, many in the crowd do not know why they behaved in the way they imitated.

A teacher, can use imitation in the classroom/school for enabling students to acquire positive and socially desirable behaviour in the following way :

  • A teacher should demonstrate positive aspects of his behaviour to his students. A teacher’s positive practices like cleanliness, punctuality, truthfulness, and fairness to all have immense impact on the students to imitate. Nevertheless, should not expose his weaknesses to his students.

 

  • While teaching history, social science, literature and telling stories to children, he should
    always highlight the positive aspects of the important characters for imitation by the students.

 

  • When any student imitates positive behaviour, teacher should try to recognize it and provide verbal praise encouraging him/her to repeat it.

Or

Compare the subject-centred approach and competency-based approach. Write any two advantages and limitations of these approaches.

Ans. Comparison between the subject-centred approach and competency-based approach is as follows :

Subject-centred approach- This approach focuses on the delivery of the subject contents by the teacher for students to acquire, i.e. importance is laid on topics/concepts included in the subject, around which all the teaching and activities revolve.

In most of the schools, it is a common practice. These schools follow the syllabus and textbooks both for teaching and learning. The textbook in the subject is considered as the storehouse of all the required concepts, examples and exercises that are required for the teaching-learning process. The means and methods of acquisition of the prescribed concepts may be anything.

Various characteristics of subject-centered approach are as follows:

(1)   Real life situations are rarely taken into account while presenting the subject matters in the classroom.

(2)   The focus is on the content /subject matter, and hence, transaction of the textbooks in the class is ‘be all and end all’ of the classroom activities.

(3)   All classroom interactions are textbook centered.

(4)   The teacher projects himself as a model for the students as s/he has the mastery over the subject matter.

(5)   Textual questions are used for evaluation, which lacks variety.

(6)   The learning needs of these students are supposed to be fulfilled through the textbook.

(7)   There is stress on quantity oriented output rather than quality.

Competency-based approach- Competency is the essential skill, knowledge, attitude and behavior required for effective performance of a real-world task or activity. Competencies are essential skills that one needs to be a successful learner. Competency is a skill performed to a specific standard under specific conditions. A “competency” in its most generic form is any underlying characteristic an individual possesses and uses, which leads to successful performance. It is a clearly defined and measurable activity (cluster of related knowledge and skill) accomplished by an individual. On the other hand, a skill is referred to a task or group of tasks performed to a specific level of proficiency, which often use motor functions and typically require the manipulation of instruments and equipment. However, some skills like ‘adding correctly and quickly’ and ‘appreciating the need for orderly behaviour at home, school and public places’ are knowledge-and attitude-based.

Advantages of subject-centred approach :

(1) Insistence on the students to memorize the facts by repeated reading.

(2) They may produce their answers orally or in written form by reproducing the exact content.

Limitations of subject-centred approach :

(1)   Real life situations are rarely taken into account while presenting the subject matters in the classroom.

(2)   The students answer the questions both orally and in written form by copying from the book.

Advantages of competency-based approach :

(1)   The assessment of results can be used for further improvement of the students. Remedial coaching is helpful for the low achievers and enrichment programme for the high achievers. Since, it aims at mastery of skills by each individual, it caters to the learning needs of all categories of students.

(2)   What the students learn today cannot be forgotten tomorrow as competencies are achieved by the students at the level of mastery under the guidance of a teacher.

Limitations of competency-based approach :

(1)   As pace of learning varies from student to student, it is very difficult on the part of the teacher to help the students to achieve the competencies within the stipulated time.

(2)   The content knowledge of the teacher is very important to help the students achieve the competencies. If the teacher is not proficient, the approach may not work.

Previous Year Papers with Solutions

Q 2. Write the characteristics of Project method. What are its advantages and limitations?

Ans. Project method is based on the view that experiences lead to learning. Hence, learners need to explore their environment, manipulate objects in their environment, and thus, learn from direct experiences instead of hearing someone else’s experiences in some other environment, narrated by teachers. Thus, learning through this method is relevant and meaningful; and based on interests and abilities of learners. Projects may be assigned to individuals or to groups. Following are the various characteristics of project method:

(1)   Activity: A teacher is required to create a learning environment where students begin to learn through self-planning, group discussion and group activities.

(2)   Utility: It is essential that the project method must be useful to the present needs.

(3)   Democratic values: Inculcation of characteristics like working in a group,cooperate with each other, respect each other, value others opinion, assume and share responsibility, lead to development of democratic values. According to Kilpatrick, this is the best method in a democracy.

(4)   Problematic: While beginning to work on any project, students are intended to solve at least one problem.

(5)   Objective: The objectives with which the students pursue the project are intimately associated with their real life situations and would be fulfilling some of their cherished desires.

(6)   Integration: Since a project is based on the real life problems, real experiences for carrying out the project and no real experience involves the knowledge of only one subject. One has to combine the knowledge of many subjects appropriately for successful completion of the project. Integration of subjects learnt in the classroom is the basic requirement in a project work.

(7)   Liberty: In Project Method, learning takes place naturally. So, students perform activities freely.

(8)   Reality: It is necessary to create real life activities for effective learning. Advantages of project method are as follows:

(1)   The student gets the scope to imbibe several social qualities like cooperation and teamwork, group affinity and sacrifice through project work.

(2)   Since all the activities of a project are related to the real life experiences, each of such activities is meaningful to the student. Therefore, meaningful learning is always associated with the project method.

(3)   Completion of the project gives individuals a sense of accomplishment, which in turn, encourages the student for further learning.

(4)   The student enjoys full freedom in conducting a project. This develops selfconfidence to act and also promotes a sense of responsibilities among the students.

(5)   The project method is based on the principles of active learning. The student gets totally involved in the activity which helps in enhancing his/her knowledge, understanding and skills in real life situation and ultimately in developing a holistic personality.

(6)   Interest and motivation for the project activities are spontaneously created and no external persuasion or force is needed to attract the students towards learning.

(7)   The student gets acquainted with the types of work which s/he is expected to perform in future. Thus, the project method helps the student in his/her preparation for a future life.

Following are the limitations of the project method:

(1) It is not always possible to employ it in all subject areas of the curriculum.

(2) It is difficult for an average teacher to plan a project and ensure the participation of all students in it.

(3) There is a lack of proper coordination in the experience/knowledge acquired through project method.

Or

What are the main qualities of an activity? Why memorisation is not considered as an activity?

Ans. Following are the main qualities of an effective learning activity:

  • Spontaneous Involvement: A good activity is such that it attracts the students immediately when it starts and they join in it out of their own interest without any persuasion or compulsion.
  • Focused: Activity for learning is always goal directed and is so designed that the participating students are focused to solve the problem or reach the target and are not easily distracted.
  • Joyful: The test of the efficacy of the activity is when the student derives a sense of satisfaction after its completion. The very nature of a good activity is that it is interesting for the students to conduct and it brings a sense of achievement, provides joy, which ultimately becomes the source of intrinsic motivation for the students to go for the next activity, which might be more challenging.
  • Challenging: An effective activity poses a challenge before the students. It is neither too easy to neglect nor too difficult to attempt for solving. It is moderately difficult which is within the capability of the students to solve but with concentration and with a little more effort.

Memorization is not considered as an activity because memorization is a way of mechanical repetition which has none of the four characteristics of an activity.

NIOS DLED Assignment Course-502 Full Answer In English

Assignment-II

Note: Answer the following questions in about 500 words.

Q1. How do you plan to organise your classroom space to make it learner friendly?

Ans. In a teaching-learning classroom, a teacher should manage classroom space appropriately. An organised classroom motivates students for learning. Some of the components of the classroom which we will plan to be organised to make optimum use of classroom space are given as follows:

(1)   Wall space and Bulletin Boards: Wall space and bulletin boards can make a classroom lively and attractive and contribute considerably to student’s independence and achievement.

We will consider the following things when we thinks about wall space and bulletin boards in the classroom:

(a)   When we use student assignments, charts/projects, we will be sure to reserve large ones in prominent place for clear visibility of every student.

(b)   We will draw or paint grade specific activities on the wall, so that students can individually or in the groups do these activities and learn.

(c)   We will designate the space that will contain few exemplars of high quality student work.

(d)   We will keep some wall space that can intentionally remain blank. We will use this area to create a working space for students.

(e)   We will try to find wall space, bulletin board space, where we and students can place objects or materials that are personally interesting.

In addition to the basics of furniture arrangement, wall space and bulletin boards, we will design a rich classroom environment. Classroom walls can be covered with many lists such as, a sign board for attendance, colour chart, list of words, songs, riddles, daily routine, different types of activities, etc. A message board can be placed in a prominent place of the classroom where we and the students can write messages to each other. We will set up a special bookshelf for storybooks, big books, comic books and reference books. Paint the wall with different activities, which are related to the contents/competencies of a particular class. Through these wall activities, students will discuss among themselves in groups and learn from each other. Many times, these wall activities also promote selflearning.

(2)   Learning Materials: Just as the appropriate use of furniture, we will use of floor and wall spaces aid to facilitate learners’ interest in learning activities. A careful planning for placement of learning materials can also help in achieving these goals. We will consider the following when a we think about arranging learning materials in the classroom:

(a)   We will use boxes to keep supplies neatly organised rather than spreading them out on tables or shelves.

(b)   We will store materials that will be used often (e.g. books, paper, pencil, eraser, colour pencils and lab equipment) in places where students can access them easily. Learning materials that students will use less maybe kept in remote areas of the room.

(c)   We will designate and label places in the room where students will keep their completed worksheet. In elementary classrooms, where the teacher teaches multiple subjects, it makes sense to have different boxes or trays for each subject. So we will make seperate space for these and will use icons or colour codes to help students for keeping their work if they are just learning how to read (for example; class 1 students).

(d)   The materials, which we only need, we will be keep it in the least accessible area.

(3)   Classroom’s Furniture and Floor Space: In the classrooms of primary schools, students sit on the floor and on benches in some cases. Depending on the space available and the nature of the activity, we may use different sitting arrangements, e.g. linear rows, semi-circle, circle, face-to-face, etc. we will arrange all furniture in the room and will make such sitting arrangement in such a way that the students can move in room comfortably and we also can easily reach every student as and when required. This is essential for students to feel the personal attention of a teacher and for him/her to observe students individually while they are engaged in the activities.

We will keep a significant portion of the room for shelves, almirah or other furniture where we can keep a variety of TLMs.

Or

Describe the different approaches of categorising TLM with examples.

Ans. Different approaches of categorising of Teaching-Learning-Materials are:

(1)   Real Objects/Experiences: By directly using real objects, persons and events around them, the students get first hand experiences. However, possession of objects may not lead to learning. Teachers must try to show the real objects to the students while teaching, so that they get direct experience of the objects with reference to the concept they are expected to learn. But for reasons given below, it is not always possible to bring the real objects to the classroom.

(a)   Size of the object: Too large in size to carry or to store in the classroom or too small to be seen by the students.

(b)   Safety: If dangerous, species like snake, scorpion, etc. are to be brought into the classroom could affect the safety of students.

(c)   Cost: Objects can become too expensive for class use.

In teaching Environmental Studies in lower classes and Science in higher classes, many direct experiences can be given to the students for effective understanding. Children get direct experience from several objects or places existing in their immediate environment like observing real flowers, leaves, plants, insects; taking a walk in the forest and collecting useful forest products; going to different organisations like Panchayat Office, Bank, Post Office and observe their functioning; setting and maintaining an aquarium. Direct and concrete experiences help students understanding of difficult concepts. Hence, attempts ought to be made to give students as many experiences as
possible.

(2)   Prepared TLM: Teachers are familiar with materials specifically prepared for teaching and learning particular subjects or topics. Maps, charts, pictures, models, toys, marbles, coloured sticks, flash cards, number and alphabet cards are examples of some of the most common prepared TLMs known and used by teachers. For our classroom requirements, we acquire these materials in two ways: (i) procuring from the market, and (ii) developing by ourselves or sometimes involving students.

Standard TLMs like maps, globes, charts, scales, measuring tapes are usually purchased from the market. The cost of the materials varies according to their quality. Since most of these materials are manufactured and are finished products, they have better look and are comparatively more durable. Due to this, the teachers everywhere prefer them to purchase.

Teachers not only purchase finished products like maps, charts, pictures, etc. from the market to use as TLMs but also purchase materials like drawing sheets, sketch pens, colouring materials, gum, scissor, ruler, etc. to develop/prepare TLMs by themselves and by the involvement of students.

But still teachers develop TLMs even when they are available in market because they cannot afford to purchase all the materials that they require and sometimes typical materials that they need in their classrooms are not readily available in the market. This may include labelled charts, some specific labelled diagrams, etc.

Such typical diagrams or pictures, which teachers and their students need, may not be available in the market. Very often, they need less effort to prepare TLMs like folding a paper with a shape or a diagram or graph sketched on the board on the data brought by students. Such prepared TLMs have more relevance than the purchased readymade materials. Further, if they are involving students in developing TLMs, they might be observing their pleasure while working in such activities. What is more important is that in the process of planning and preparing the TLMs for use in the classrooms, the students are acquiring concepts with proper understanding and without the
rigor of instruction or memorisation.

Further, on the basis of sensory experience, the TLMs can be categorised as follows:

(1)   Audio Aids: These refer to the aids, which call upon the auditory senses, and thus, help the learners to learn through listening. For instance, radio, tape-recorder, audio cassette player, language laboratory, etc.

(2)   Visual Aids: These refer to the aids, which call upon the visual senses, and thus, help the learners to learn through viewing. The important aids under this head are Chart, Blackboard, Maps, Pictures, Models, Textbooks, Slide projector, Transparency, Flash-cards, Print materials, etc.

(3)   Audiovisual Aids: These refer to the aids, which call upon the devices or materials that require the auditory as well as visual senses and helping the students to learn through listening as well as viewing. Examples under this head include TV, Computer, VCD player, Virtual Classroom, Multimedia and other computer-assisted instruction materials.

Besides these, another classification of TLMs is based on the following:

(1)   Projected-aids: These include movies, magic lantern, micro-projectors and projection with the overhead projectors, LCD projectors, etc.

(2)   Non-projected-aids: These include chalk board, felt board, bulletin board, photographs, posters, maps, charts, globe, specimens, textbook illustrations, etc.

(3)   Experiential aids: These include field trips, educational tours, visit to important institutions and industries, observing experiments, demonstrations and natural phenomena.

Important Questions with Solutions

Q.2 What are the advantages and limitations of computer assisted learning in the classroom?

Ans. Following are the advantages of computer assisted learning in the classroom:

(1)   CAL is individualised, that is each student is free to work at his own place, totally unaffected by the performance of any other students.

(2)   Information is presented in a structured form. It proves useful in the study of a subject where there is hierarchy of facts and rules.

(3)   CAL forces active participation on the part of the student, which contrasts with the more passive role in reading a book or attending a lecture.

(4)   CAL utilises a reporting system that provides the student with a clear picture of his progress. Thus, students can identify the subject areas in which they have improved and in which they need improvement.

(5)   By enabling students to manipulate concepts directly and explore the results of such manipulation, it reduces the time taken to comprehend difficult concepts.

(6)   CAL provides a lot of drilling which can prove useful for low aptitude students and through which high-aptitude students can be escaped.

(7)   CAL can enhance reasoning and decision-making abilities.

Limitations of computer assisted learning in the classroom are as follows:

(1)   CAL packages may not fulfill expectations of teachers. Objectives and methods decided by the CAL author and of a teacher may differ.

(2)   Motivating and training teachers to make use of computers in education is a challenging task. They may have fear of this new device. They may be unwilling to spend extra time for preparation, selection and use of CAL packages. It may also be perceived as a threat to their job.

(3)   There are administrative problems associated with computer installation. The problems particularly related to the physical location of the computer resources, the cost of hardware maintenance and insurance and time-tabling.

(4)   The rapid development of hardware makes it difficult to select a system before it becomes obsolete. If a new system is installed by a maximum number of institutions, they may not get courseware required for the system and courseware developed so far may become useless.

(5)   Computers can be very expensive to provide and maintain. Many schools may find it difficult or impossible to provide this resource for students. If only limited numbers of computers are available, students may have to share them among small groups, which can undermine the potential benefits of computer learning.

(6)   Content covered by a certain CAL package may become outdated. A very high cost is involved in the development of these packages. If the course is outdated, the resources involved in its development will be a waste.

(7)   Though simulation permits execution of chemical and biological experiments, hand-son experience is missing. Moreover, CAL packages cannot develop manual skills such as handling an apparatus, working with a machine, etc.

NIOS DLED Assignment Course-502 Full Answer In English

Assignment-III

Note: Answer the following question in about 1000 words.

Q.1   Suppose you are teaching in a tribal dominated school. You do not know the mother tongue of those children. How can you organise activities that children will learn?

Ans.  A tribe is a group of distinct people, dependent on their land for their livelihood, who are largely self-sufficient, and not integrated into the national society. Since Independence, several efforts have been made for the overall development leading to the mainstreaming of tribal people. Still the problems of tribal people continue to be a matter of concern. Children of Scheduled Tribes often face difficulties in learning because of their social, ethnic, economic and cultural differences. As a teacher in a tribal dominated school, we will organise following activities that children will learn:

Learning cultural knowledge from the community: First we will learnthe knowledge of the child’s community. So we will identify ourselves with students’ community and will talk with the community people, discuss with them on different socio-cultural milieus and attend festivals in the community.

Using mother tongue as medium of instruction: If we teach a child having 5-6 years of exposure to his/her mother tongue in a language unknown to him/her, he/she may not understand anything that we say. For example: a Santali child in class I can understand ‘alah’ but not ‘house’, merom’ but not ‘goat’, ‘daka’ but not rice. Though he/she can elaborate 5-10 sentences about his/her house (alah) in his/her mother tongue but may not understand one sentence about house in a language foreign to him/her. So we will use of mother tongue (home language) as a medium of instruction not only makes the child understand the concept but also brings self confidence in him/her.

Integrating local knowledge in learning teaching process: No textbook can incorporate all the local knowledge from different areas of a state or a country. We will start with local knowledge to teach each concept and link them with the textbook knowledge. For example: If we have to teach ‘unit of measurement’ in mathematics then we will start with the non-standard units that are used in day to day life such as sero, mana, pana, kahana etc. After that we will teach the standard units of measurement like Kg, Km, Litre etc.

Using socio-cultural components in learning-teaching process: A community has its own life style, own social values, socio-political organization and religious beliefs. They have their own food habits, dress and ornaments, agriculture and industry. They have knowledge on every aspect of life and this base knowledge need to be taken into account to facilitate learning. So we will impart further knowledge based on their cultural elements.

Using folk materials in classroom learning: Every community has its folk stories, songs, riddles, drawing and painting, puzzles etc. While facilitating learning, these materials may be used in their full potentials because these materials not only facilitate for easy and meaningful acquisition of learning outcomes but also make the learning process pleasurable.

Adapting textbook with socio-cultural knowledge: Adapting the text book means, bringing the socio-cultural elements in the text of the text books and preparing alternative text wherever necessary for children’s experiential learning.

Learning of children’s mother tongue by the teacher: If a teacher knows children’s mother tongue, his/her job will be easier even though it is difficult to learn language of each child. Hence we will learn languages from children’s family and community to talk with them in their language.

Involving communities in school activities: A good teacher always uses the community resources. Community involvement in school management and classroom activities brings a positive change in the performance of children in the school. A community member can be involved to teach students local art and craft, songs and music, fables and stories, and other good practices of the community.

Or

Q. Consider that there are few CWSN children in your classroom, as a teacher how can you take care of such children in the classroom for facilitating their learning?

Ans.   A group that forms a very important part of equity issue at the elementary level is the Children with Special Needs (CWSN). There may be some children in the classroom with mild disabilities like loco-motor disability, visual impairment, hearing impairment, lower level of intellectual functioning and deficits in adaptive behavior. As a teacher, we have to deal with these children to improve their learning and performance along with other children in the classroom. The key points, which we should take care of impaired children during a classroom transaction, are as follows:

(1)   In classroom, suitable adjustments in view of the disability may be made in seating arrangements. The arrangement need to be such as not to create any physical hindrance to the child.

(2)   We should accept such children in class ensuring that no critical comment on their disabilities is given by anybody in the class.

(3)   In the assessment of performance of these children, particularly for grading or marking, their disability needs to be given due consideration.

(4)   Children with such disability should be involved in all learning activities as an equal partner with his/her peers. It may be ensured that, they have adequate opportunities to participate in

For Example,

(i)   We will provide the following kind of help to the education of visually impaired children:

(1)   provide training in listening with comprehension in order to reduce the reading load on the child with visual problems;

(2)   adjust such children in front rows so that they can read from the blackboard with ease;

(3)   provide opportunities to them for participation in physical education programmers and a book-stand may be arranged for the partially sighted children;

(4)   provide time schedule for a radio broadcast and encouraged them to listen and wherever facilities are available, audio cassettes may be used; and

(5)   write in bold letters which are legible and read aloud what s/he is writing on the blackboard.

(ii)   We will keep the following to meet the educational needs of the children with hearing and speech impairment:

(1)   While demonstrating model or reading from the textbook, we will ensure that our lip movements are visible to such children so that they may be able to supplement listening by lipreading.

(2)   If speech disorder is due to an organic defect in the speech mechanism, medical help is required. Speech defects arising out of hearing problems can be corrected through speech training, using reinforced drill and practice.

(3)   Children with hearing problems should be seated in the front row so that they can listen what a teacher speaks, with ease.

(4)   While speaking and writing simultaneously on the blackboard, we should face the students rather than speak with face towards the blackboard. For the same reason, we may avoid moving while speaking.

(5)   Additional visuals, individually or in groups, may be used to supplement general teaching input.

(6)   Peers may be encouraged to interact with these children and help one another in listening.

(7)   We are required to use a reasonable level of pitch while speaking. We should avoid mumbling and speaking too fast.

NIOS DLED Assignment Course-502 Full Answer In English

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